The adoption of the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism by the League of Nations in 1937 marked the entrance of terrorism in the field of international law. The present-day international legal framework for the prevention and combatting of terrorism started in the 1960’s with the adoption of the 1963 Convention on Offences and certain other Acts committed on Board Aircraft. This framework now consists of various treaties and protocols relating to specific categories of terrorist acts.
Acts of terror have been around for some time. How long exactly, is the subject of academic debate and revolves not in the least around the question how terrorism is defined. The adoption of the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism by the League of Nations in 1937 marked its entrance in the field of international law. The present-day international legal framework for the prevention and combatting of terror started in the 1960’s with the adoption of the 1963 Convention on Offences and certain other Acts committed on Board Aircraft. This framework now consists of various multilateral treaties and protocols relating to specific categories of terrorist acts as well as several regional conventions on international terrorism in general. However, a comprehensive multilateral convention on terrorist acts is still lacking. This is mainly due to the continuing lack of agreement within the United Nations on a common definition.
This Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Terrorism. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's subject headings (keywords) Terrorism, Maritime Terrorism, and State-sponsored Terrorism are instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
Sources of international law
- Addicott, J.F., Terrorism Law: Materials, Cases, Comments (7th ed.), Tucson, AZ, Lawyers & Judges, 2014.
- Cherif Bassiouni, M. (ed.), International Terrorism: Multilateral Conventions (1937-2001), Ardsley, NY, Transnational Publishers, 2001.
- Cherif Bassiouni, M. (ed.), International Terrorism: A Compilation of U.N. Documents 1972-2001 (2 vols), Ardsley, NY, Transnational Publishers, 2002.
- Elagab, O., and Elagab, J. (eds.), International Law Documents Relating to Terrorism, London, Routledge-Cavendish, 2007.
- Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report, 2014.
- Friedlander, R. A. and others (eds.), Terrorism : Documents of International and Local Control, Dobbs Ferry, Oceana Publications, 1979 <2014>.
- Roy, C., International Instruments on Terrorism, Jurisdiction and Extradiction, New Delhi, YS Books International, 2017.
- Saul, B. (ed.), Terrorism, Oxford, Hart, 2012.
- Van den Herik, L., and Schrijver, N., Leiden Policy Recommendations on Counter-terrorism and International Law, Leiden University, 2010.
UN Declarations and Resolutions
- Bates, E.S. (et al.) (eds.), Terrorism and International Law: Accountability, Remedies, and Reform, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.
- Bianchi, A. and Naqvi, Y., International Humanitarian Law and Terrorism, Oxford, Hart, 2011.
- Bianchi, A. and Keller, A. (eds.), Counterterrorism: Democracy's Challenge, Oxford, Hart, 2008.
- Chenoweth, E. (et al.) (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Terrorism, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019.
- Hoffman, B., Inside Terrorism, New York, NY, Columbia University Press, 2017.
- Jackson, R. and D. Pisoiu (eds.), Contemporary Debates on Terrorism, Abingdon, Routledge, 2018.
- Jones, M. (et al.) (eds.), Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2019.
- King, C., C. Walker and J. Gurulé (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Criminal and Terrorism Financing Law,
Cham, Switzerland, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.
- Law, R.D., Terrorism : A History, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2016.
- Martin, G., Essentials of Terrorism : Concepts and Controversies, Los Angeles, SAGE, 2017.
- Martin, J.C., Les règles internationales relatives à la lutte contre le terrorisme, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2006.
- Pisoiu, D. and S. Hain, Theories of Terrorism. An Introduction, London, Routledge, 2017.
- Salinas de Frías, A.M., Samuel, K.L.H., and White, N.D. (eds.), Counter-Terrorism: International Law and Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- Saul, B. (ed.), Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2014.
- Saul, B., Defining Terrorism in International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Walker, C., Terrorism and the Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011.
Selected books and articles
- Alshdaifat, S.A., International Law and the Use of Force Against Terrorism, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017.
- Auriel, P, O. Beaud, and C. Wellman (eds.), The Rule of Crisis. Terrorism, Emergency Legislation and the Rule of Law, Cham, Switzerland, Springer, 2018.
- Azam, J.P., and V. Thelen, Fighting Terrorism at Source : Using Foreign aid to Delegate Global Security, Cheltenham, Elgar, 2018.
- Badde-Revue, M. and M. Ruffo de Calabre, Ethics in counter-terrorism, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2018.
- Bayefsky, A.F. and L.R. Blank, Incitement to terrorism, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2018.
- Chermak, S.M, and Freilich, J.D. (eds.), Transnational Terrorism, Farnham, Ashgate, 2013.
- Choi, S.-W., ‘Does Restrictive Immigration Policy Reduce Terrorism in Western Democracies?’ Perspectives on Terrorism, 12 (2018) No. 4, pp. 14-25. [PDF]
- Combs, C.C., Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century (7th ed.), Boston, MA, Pearson, 2013.
- Commonwealth Secretariat, Common Law Legal Systems Model Legislative Provisions on Money Laundering, Terrorism Financing, Preventive Measures and Proceeds of Crime, London, Commonwealth Secretariat, 2016.
- Conway, M., and S.K. Macdonald (eds.), Islamic State's Online Activity and Responses, London, Routledge, 2020.
- De Beer, A.C., Peremptory Norms of General International Law (Jus Cogens) and the Prohibition of Terrorism, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2019. [E-book].
- Duffy, H., The ‘War on Terror’ and the Framework of International Law, (2nd ed.), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2015.
- El-Said, H., New Approaches to Countering Terrorism: Designing and Evaluating Counter Radicalization and De-Radicalization Programs, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Fabbrini, F., Constitutionalism Across Borders in the Struggle Against Terrorism, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2016.
- Falk, O., Targeted Killings, Law and Counter-terrorism Effectiveness : Does Fair Play Pay Off?, Abingdon, Routledge, 2021.
- Feinberg, M., Sovereignty in the Age of Global Terrorism : The Role of International Organisations, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2016. [E-book].
- Fitzgerald, J., N. Ali, and M. Armstrong (eds.), Terrorism and Policy Relevance : Critical Perspectives, London, Routledge, 2018.
- Gal-Or, N., “The Formation of a Customary International Crime: Global Terrorism Human (In)Security”, International Criminal Law Review, 15 (2015), No. 4, pp. 665-699.
- Goertz, and A.E. Streitparth, The New Terrorism : Actors, Strategies and Tactics, Cham, Springer, 2019.
- Goldbarsht, D., Global Counter-terrorist Financing and Soft Law : Multi-layered Approaches, Cheltenham, Elgar, 2020. [E-book].
- Hale-Ross, S., and D. Lowe (eds.), Terrorism and State Surveillance of Communications, Abingdon, Routledge, 2019.
- Hamilton, C., Contagion, Counter-terrorism and Criminology : Justice in the Shadow of Terror, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. [E-book].
- Hamm, M.S., and R.F.J. Spaaij, The Age of Lone Wolf Terrorism, New York, Columbia University Press, 2017.
- Hanhimäki, J.M., and Blumenau, B. (eds.), An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences, London, Routledge, 2013.
- Hegemann, H., International Counterterrorism Bureaucracies in the United Nations and the European Union, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2014.
- Herik, L. van den, and Schrijver, N. (eds.), Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Fragmented International Legal Order: Meeting the Challenges, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- Hoffman, B., Inside Terrorism, New York, Columbia University Press, 2017.
- Jansson, J., Terrorism, Criminal Law and Politics : The Decline of the Political Offence Exception to Extradition, Abingdon, Routledge, 2020.
- Kaplan, J., H. Lööw, and L. Malkki (eds.), Lone Wolf and Autonomous Cell Terrorism, Routledge, S.I., 2015.
- Karim, S., Maritime Terrorism and the Role of Judicial Institutions in the International Legal Order, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2017. [E-book].
- Kassab, H.S., Terrorist recruitment and the international system, Lanham, Lexington Books, 2020.
- Kendall, R.J., S.M. Presley, and S.S. Ramkumar (eds.), New Developments in Biological and Chemical Terrorism Countermeasures,
Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2016.
- Kouroutakis, A., “Islamic Terrorism: The Legal Impact of the Freedom of Religion in the United States and Europe”, Boston University International Law Journal, 34 (2016), No. 1, pp. 113-148.
- Liebermann, E., Deterring Terrorism : A Model for Strategic Deterrence, Abingdon, Routledge, 2019.
- Margariti, S., Defining International Terrorism : Between State Sovereignty and Cosmopolitanism, The Hague, Springer, 2017. [E-book].
- Martin, S., and L. Weinberg, The Role of Terrorism in Twenty-first-century Warfare, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2017.
- Maszka, J., Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram : Guerrilla Insurgency or Strategic Terrorism?, London, World Scientific Publishing Europe, 2018.
- Nowak, M., and A. Charbord (eds.), Using Human Rights to Counter Terrorism, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018.
- Parker, T., Avoiding the Terrorist Trap : Why Respect for Human Rights is the Key to Defeating Terrorism, London, World Scientific Publishing Europe, 2019.
- Paulussen, C., and M. Scheinin (ed.), Human Dignity and Human Security in Times of Terrorism, The Hague, T.M.C. Asser Press, 2020.
- Proulx, V.J., 'Terrorism' at the World Court: Ukraine v Russia as an Opportunity for Greater Guidance on Relevant Obligations?, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017.
- Rébé, N., Counter-Terrorism Financing : International Best Practices and the Law, Leiden, Brill | Nijhoff, 2019. [E-book].
- Roach, K. (ed.), Comparative Counter-Terrorism Law, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2015.
- Ronczkowski, M., Terrorism and Organized Hate Crime : Intelligence Gathering, Analysis, and Investigations, Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2017.
- Roy, C., International Instruments on Terrorism, Jurisdiction and Extradiction, New Delhi, YS Books International, 2017.
- Ryder, N., The Financial War on Terror: A Review of Counter-Terrorist Financing Strategies Since 2001, London, Routledge, 2015.
- Saiya, N., Weapon of Peace. How Religious Liberty Combats Terrorism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2018.
- Sánchez-Cuenca, I., The Historical Roots of Political Violence. Revolutionary Terrorism in Affluent Countries, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2019.
- Saul, B., “Old and New Terrorist Threats: What Form Will They Take and How Will States Respond?”, in M. Cherif Bassiouni, Globalization and Its Impact on the Future of Human Rights and International Criminal Justice, Cambridge, Intersentia, 2015, pp. 281-307.
- Scaife, L., Social Networks as the New Frontier of Terrorism: #Terror, [S.l.], Routledge, 2019.
- Shor, E. and S. Hoadley (eds.), International Human Rights and Counter-Terrorism, Singapore, Springer, 2019. [E-book].
- Simonovski, I and Z.E. Ünsal, Countering the Financing of Terrorism in the International Community, Berlin, Peter Lang, 2018.
- Sroka, A. F. Castro-Rial Garrone, and R.D. Torrés Kumbrián (eds.), Radicalism and Terrorism in the 21st Century : Implications for Security, Frankfurt am Main, Peter Lang, 2017.
- Sullivan, G., The Law of the List : UN Counterterrorism Sanctions and the Politics of Global Security Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2020.
- Tu, A.T., Chemical and Biological Weapons and Terrorism, London, Taylor & Francis, 2018.
- Weimann, G., Terrorism in Cyberspace: The Next Generation, Washington D.C., Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2015.
- Wellmann, C., Terrorism and Counterterrorism. A Moral Assessment, Dordrecht, Springer, 2013. [E-book].
- Windle, J. (et al.) (eds.), Historical Perspectives on Organised Crime and Terrorism, Abingdon, Routledge, 2018.
Periodicals, serial publications
- Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression
- Columbia Studies in Terrorism and Irregular Warfare
- Combating Terrorism Center Sentinal
- Contemporary Terrorism Studies
- Critical Studies on Terrorism
- History of Terror
- Imperial College Press Insurgency and Terrorism Series
- International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism
- International Library of Terrorism
- International Studies on Terrorism
- Insurgency and Terrorism Series
- Journal for Deradicalization
- Journal of Terrorism Research
- New Directions in Terrorism Studies
- Perspectives on Terrorism
- Routledge Critical Terrorism Studies
- Routledge Research in Terrorism and the Law
- Studies in Conflict and Terrorism
- Studies in Violence and Terrorism
- Terrorism: An International Journal
- Terrorism and Political Violence
- Terrorism: International Case Law Reporter
- Terrorism and Global Justice Series
- Terrorism Monitor
- Terrorism, Security, and Computation
- Westview Special Studies in National and International Terrorism
- Kost, I., and Thyssen, H., "Terrorism and International Law: Selected Bibliography", in M.J. Glennon and S. Sur (eds.), Terrorism and International Law, Leiden, Nijhoff, 2008, pp. 699-784.
- Sinai, J., Bibliography of Terrorism and Counter-terrorism,[Place of publication not identified], Routledge, 2018.