Article 2 under 7 of the Charter of the United Nations is clear in case a recognised state is subject to an intervention: "Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state". This article contains a codification of the territorial integrity of a State principle. Under the Responsibility to Protect doctrine, rather than having a right to intervene in the conduct of other states, states are said to have a responsibility to intervene and protect the citizens of another state where that other state has failed in its obligation to protect its own citizens against international crimes or natural disasters. Responsibility to Protect is the name of a report produced in 2001 by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) which was established by the Canadian government in response to the history of unsatisfactory humanitarian interventions. The report sought to establish a set of clear guidelines for determining when intervention is appropriate, what the appropriate channels for approving an intervention are and how the intervention itself should be carried out. It argues that the notion of a 'right to intervene' is problematic and should be replaced with the 'responsibility to protect'.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on Intervention. It provides the basic legal materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
- Fassin, D. and M. Pandolfi (eds.), Contemporary States of Emergency: The Politics of Military and Humanitarian Interventions, New York, Zone Books, 2010.
- Hehir, A., Humanitarian Intervention: An Introduction, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2010.
- Simms, B. and D.J.B. Trim, Humanitarian Intervention: A History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
- Yoshihara, S., Waging War to Make Peace: U.S. Intervention in Global Conflicts, Santa Barbara, CA, Praeger Security International 2010.
- Hudson, K.A., 'Justice, Intervention, and Force in International Relations: Reassessing Just War Theory in the 21st Century, London, Routledge, 2009.
- Kitchen, V.M., The Globalization of NATO: Intervention, Security and Identity, London, Routledge, 2010.
- Lu, C., Just and Unjust Interventions in World Politics: Public and Private, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
- Munkler, H. und Malowitz, (eds.), Humanitäre Intervention: ein Instrument außenpolitischer Konfliktbearbeitung: Grundlagen und Diskussion, Wiesbaden, Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2008.
- Nalbandov, R., Foreign Interventions in Ethnic Conflicts, Farnham, Ashgate, 2009.
- Pattison. J., Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Who Should Intervene?, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010.
- Bannelier, K., Christakis, Th., "Under the UN Security Council's Watchful Eyes: Military Intervention by Invitation in the Malian Conflict", Leiden Journal of International Law, 26 (2013), No. 4, pp. 855-874.
- Iyi, J.-M., "The AU/ECOWAS Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention Legal Regimes and the UN Charter", African Journal of International and Comparative Law, 21 (2013), No. 3, pp. 489-519.
- Lieblich, E., "Intervention and Consent: Consensual Forcible Interventions in Internal Armed Conflicts as International Agreements", Boston University International Law Journal, 29 (2011), No. 2, pp. 337-382.
- McClean, E., "The Dilemma of Intervention: Human Rights and the UN Security Council", in M. Odello and S. Cavandoli (eds.), Emerging Areas of Human Rights in the 21st Century: The Role of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Abingdon, Routledge, 2011, pp. 24-44.
- Morkyte, D., "International Law as a Legal Basis for Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention", Hague Yearbook of International Law, 24 (2012), pp.121-152.
- Sterio, M., "Humanitarian Intervention Post-Syria: a Grotian Moment?", ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 20 (2014), No.2, pp. 343-356.
- Williams,P.R., Ulbrick, J.T. and J. Worboys, "Preventing Mass Atrocity Crimes : the Responsibility to Protect and the Syria Crisis", Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 45 (2013), No. 1-2, pp. 473-503.
- La responsabilité de protéger: rapport de la Commission internationale de l'intervention et de la souveraineté des États, Ottawa, Centre de recherches pour le développement international, 2001.
Periodicals and Serial Publications
- Global Responsibility to Protect (GR2P)
- McPherson, A.L. (eds.), Encyclopedia of U.S. Military Interventions in Latin America, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2013.
- Responsibility to Protect Bibliography (David Davies Memorial Institute of International Studies)
Systematic classification → Peace and Security, Intervention, Use of Force
Coady,C.A.J., Dobos, N., and Sanyal, S., (eds.), Challenges for Humanitarian Intervention : Ethical Demand and Political Reality, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018.View this title in our discovery service
Ten new essays critique the practice armed humanitarian intervention, and the 'Responsibility to Protect' doctrine that advocates its use under certain circumstances. The contributors investigate the causes and consequences, as well as the uses and abuses, of armed humanitarian intervention. One enduring concern is that such interventions are liable to be employed as a foreign policy instrument by powerful states pursuing geo-political interests. Some of the chapters interrogate how the presence of ulterior motives impact on the moral credentials of armed humanitarian intervention. Others shine a light on the potential adverse effects of such interventions, even where they are motivated primarily by humanitarian concern. The volume also tracks the evolution of the R2P norm, and draws attention to how it has evolved, for better or for worse, since UN member states unanimously accepted it over a decade ago. In some respects the norm has been distorted to yield prescriptions, and to impose constraints, fundamentally at odds with the spirit of the R2P idea. This gives us all the more reason to be cautious of unwarranted optimism about humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect.
Lockyer, A., Foreign Intervention, Warfare and Civil Wars: External Assistance and Belligerents' Choice of Strategy, London, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018.View this title in our discovery service
This book examines the impact of foreign intervention in the course and nature of warfare in civil wars.
Throughout history, foreign intervention in civil wars has been the rule rather than the exception. The involvement of outside powers can have a dramatic impact on the course and nature of internal conflicts. Despite this, there has been little research which has sought to explain how foreign intervention influences the course of civil wars. This book seeks to rectify this gap. It examines the impact of foreign intervention on the warfare that characterises civil wars through by studying the cases of the Angolan and Afghan civil wars. It investigates how foreign resources affect the military power of the recipient belligerent, and examines how changes in the balance of capabilities influence the form of warfare that characterises a civil war. Warfare in civil wars is often highly fluid, with belligerents adapting their respective strategies in response to shifts in the balance of military capabilities. This book shows how the intervention of foreign powers can manipulate the balance of capabilities between the civil war belligerents and change the dominant form of warfare. The findings presented in this book offer key insights for policy-makers to navigate the increasing internationalization of civil wars around the globe.
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