This open access book analyses intellectual property and innovation governance in the development of six key industries in India and China. These industries are reflective of the innovation and economic development of the two economies, or of vital importance to them: the IT Industry, the film industry, the pharmaceutical industry, plant varieties and food security, the automobile industry, and the sharing economy. The analysis extends beyond the domain of IP law, and includes economics and policy analysis. The overarching concerns of the book are how the examined industries have developed in the two countries, what role state innovation policy and/or IP policy has played in such development, what the nature of the state innovation policy/IP policy is, whether such policy has been causal, facilitating, crippling, co-relational, or simply irrelevant, and whether there is a possibility of synergy between the two economies. The book also inquires as to why and how one specific industry has developed in one country and not in the other, and what India and China can learn from each other.