Cross-border data and information exchange is one of the most challenging issues for transboundary water management. While the regular exchange of data and information has been identified as one of the general principles of international water law, only a minority of treaties include direct obligations related to mutual data exchange. Technological innovations related to real-time data availability, space technology and earth observation have led to an increase in quality and availability of hydrological, meteorological and geo-spatial data. These innovations open new avenues for access to water related data and transform data and information exchange globally. This monograph is an exploratory assessment of the potential impacts of these disruptive technologies on data and information exchange obligations in international water law.