The European Union is a political and economic union of 27 member states in Europe. The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU has developed an internal single market (free movement of people, goods, services, and capital) through a standardized system of laws that apply in all member states. The EU maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development, justice and home affairs, common security and defense.
The European Union is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.
The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The seven principal decision-making bodies—known as the institutions of the European Union—are the European Council, the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, and the European Court of Auditors.
The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), formed by the Inner Six countries in 1951 and 1958, respectively. The community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009.
The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2016 generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of 16.477 trillion US dollars, constituting approximately 22.2% of global nominal GDP and 16.9% when measured in terms of purchasing power parity. Additionally, 27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research on the European Union. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's subject heading (keyword) European Union is instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
Ramiro Troitiño, D., The EU in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Integration Process, 2020
Sources of Community law
- Foster, N., Blackstone's EU Treaties & Legislation 2019-2020, 30 th edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019.
- Graig, P., & G.De Búrca, EU law: Text, Cases, and Materials, sixth edition, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2015.
- Kaddous, C., F.Picod & S.Kirsch, Traité sur l'Union européenne $ Traité sur le fonctionnement de l'Union européenne $ Charte des droits fondamentaux $ Traités MES et SCG, Berne, Stämpfli Editions, 2018.
- European Union: Treaty Texts
- Treaty establishing the European Community [Rome, 25 March 1957]
- Single European Act [17 February 1986]
- Treaty on European Union [Maastricht, 7 February 1992]
- Treaty of Nice amending the Treaty on European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related Acts [Nice, 26 February 2001]
- Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community [Lisbon, 13 December 2007]
- Streinz, R. und W. Michl (Her.), EUV/AEUV: Vertrag über die Europäische Union, Vertrag über die Arbeitsweise der Europäischen Union, Charta der Grundrechte der Europäischen Union, 3. Auflage, München, C.H. Beck, 2018.
- Case 6/64 Costa ENEL (15 July 1964) European Court of Justice
- Hummer, W., Vedder, C. und Lorenzmeier, S., Europarecht in Fällen: die Rechtsprechung des EuGH, des EuG und deutscher und österreichischer Gerichte, 7. neu bearbeitete und aktualisierte Auflage, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2020.
- TABLE OF CASES. Court of Justice of the European Union. (The Hague, Asser institute)
- Barnard, C. and Peers, S. (eds.), European Union Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017.
- Barnard, C., The substantive law of the EU : the four freedoms, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.
- Blanke, H-J., Mangiameli, S. (eds.), The Treaty on European Union (TEU): a Commentary, Berlin, Springer, 2013.
- Jacqué, J.P., Droit institutionnel de l'Union européenne, Paris, Dalloz, 2018.
- Kaddous, C., Picod, F. (eds.), Traité sur l'Union européenne, Traité sur le fonctionnement de l'Union européenne, Charte des droits fondamentaux, Traités MES et SCG, Berne, Stämpfli Editions, 2018.
- Kuijper, P.J., Amtenbrink, F., Curtin, D., Witte, B. de, McDonnell, A. and Van den Bogaert, S. (eds.), The law of the European Union, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, 2018.
- Meyer, J. and Hölscheidt, S. (eds.), Charta der Grundrechte der Europäischen Union, Baden-Baden, Nomos, Stämpfli, 2019.
- Schwarze, J., Becker, U., Hatje, A., Schoo, J., Augsberg, S., Bär-Bouyssière, B. (eds.), EU-Kommentar, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 2019.
Selected books and articles
- Antoniolli, L., Bonatti, L. and Ruzza, C. (eds.), Highs and lows of European integration: sixty years after the Treaty of Rome, Cham, Springer, 2019.
Bauer, M.W. & J. Trondal (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of the European Administrative System, Basingstoke, Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Bergström, C.F. & D. Ritleng, Rulemaking by the European Commission: the New System for Delegation of Powers, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2016.
- Berman, P., "The European Union-II: External Relations", in Roberts, I. (ed.), Satow's diplomatic practice, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2017, pp. 421-465.
- Birkinshaw, P.J. & A. Biondi (eds.), Britain Alone!: The Implications and Consequences of United Kingdom Exit from the EU, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, 2016.
- Brug, W. van der. & C. Holger, (Un)Intended Consequences of EU Parliamentary Elections, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2016.
- Chalmers, D., Davies, G. and Monti, G., European Union Law: Text and Materials, Fourth edition, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2019. [e-book]
- Cremona, M. and Scott, J. (eds.), EU law beyond EU borders: the extraterritorial reach of EU law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019.
- Cremona, M. (ed.), Structural principles in EU external relations law, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2018.
- Delgado Casteleiro, A., The International Responsibility of the European Union: from Competence to Normative Control, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2016.
- Engelbrekt, A.B., Bremberg, N., Michalski, A. and Oxelheim, L. (eds.), The European Union in a Changing World Order: Interdisciplinary European Studies, Cham, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020.
- Ferreira, N., T.Kostakopoulou, J.Bradshaw, J. Bradshaw & S. Gola (eds.), The Human Face of the European Union: Are EU law and Policy Humane Enough?, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 2016.
- Fois, P., "L' Unione Europea è ancora un'organizzazione internazionale?", Rivista di diritto internazionale, 99 (2016), No. 2, pp. 371-393.
- Foster, N.G., Foster on EU law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2019.
- Foster, N.G., EU Law Directions, Sixth edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018.
- Haratsch, A., C. Koenig, M. Pechstein, Europarecht, 11. Auflage, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2018.
- Heusel, W., Rageade, J.-P. (eds.), The Authority of EU law: do we still believe in it? Berlin, Springer, 2019.
- Horsley, Th., The Court of Justice of the European Union as an institutional actor: a study in judicial lawmaking and its limits, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2018.
- Koutrakos, P., "Institutional balance and sincere cooperation in treaty-making under EU law", International and comparative law quarterly, 68 (2019), No. 1, pp. 1-33.
- Łazowski, A. & S.Blockmans, Research handbook on EU institutional law, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 2016.
- Lenaerts, K., "The Court of Justice as the Guarantor of the Rule of Law within the European Union", in De Baere, G. and Wouters, J. (eds.), The contribution of international and supranational courts to the rule of law, Cheltenham, UK : Northampton, MA, USA, Edwar Elgar Publishing, 2015, pp. 242-264.
- Merket, H., The EU and the security-development nexus: bridging the legal divide, Leiden : Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2016.
- Poopuu, B., The European Union's Brand of Peacebuilding: Acting is Everything, Cham, Switzerland, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. [e-book]
- Ramiro Troitiño, D., Kerikmäe, T., De la Guardia, R.M., and Pérez Sánchez, G.Á. (eds.), The EU in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for the European Integration Process, Cham, Springer, 2020.
- Sarmiento, D., El Derecho de la Union Europea (Segunda edición), Madrid, Marcial Pons, 2018.
- Tauschinsky, R.E., A Fiduciary Approach to Delegated and Implementing Rule-Making in the EU: How to Trust the Commission, Cham, Springer, 2020.
- Weatherill, S., Law and Values in the European Union, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.
- Wildemeersch, J., Contentieux de la légalité des actes de l'Union européenne: le mythe du droit à un recours effectif, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2019.
- Wouters, J. and Chané, A., "Brussels Meets Westphalia: The European Union and the United Nations", in Eeckhout, P. and López-Escudero, M. (eds.), The European Union's external action in times of crisis, Oxford, UK : Portland, Oregon, Hart Publishing, 2016, pp. 299-323.
Periodicals, serial publications
- Cahier de droit européen
- Common Market Law Review
- European Law Review
- JCMS Annual Review of the European Union
- Revue d'intégration européenne = Journal of European integration
- Revue de l'Union européenne
- Revue trimestrielle de droit européen
- ZEuS: Zeitschrift für Europarechtliche Studien