The European Union has succeeded in bringing into force an impressive package of regulatory measures aiming to provide a high level of environmental protection across the EU. As a result, scholars, students and practitioners are confronted with the challenge of gaining insight into this complex legislative framework and its effects. This wide-ranging Research Handbook investigates a multitude of substantive issues including waste, nature conservation, air pollution, water quality protection, chemical substantives and genetically modified organisms. Based on contributions developed by 40 environmental law scholars, this comprehensive Research Handbook discusses how the EU has used its regulatory power to steer towards environmentally friendly behaviour, delving into the deep concerns related to the compliance with and enforcement of EU environmental law. It also highlights the important role of civil society’s use of environmental procedural rights, and characterizes how the CJEU case law has contributed to the effective implementation of EU environmental legislation.