Space law consists of international space law, governing the activities of States and international intergovernmental organizations, and national space law, governing the activities of individual countries and their nationals. Advancing technology and scientific progress extend human activities in space more and more. These developments will require new regulations of space tourism, space debris, satellites, space mining, property rights on celestial bodies and encounters with alien entities.
Space law is a relatively new branch of law, roughly starting in 1957 with the launch of the Sputnik I, the first satellite in space. Space law consists of international space law, governing the activities of States and international intergovernmental organizations, and national space law, governing the activities of individual countries and their nationals. Advancing technology and scientific progress extend human activities in space more and more. These developments will require new regulations of business activities, space tourism, the problem of dangerous space debris in combination with space traffic management, rescue missions, contracts for space mining expeditions, property rights on celestial bodies and encounters with alien entities.
This Research Guide is intended as a starting point for research in the field of Space Law. It provides the basic materials available in the Peace Palace Library, both in print and electronic format. Handbooks, leading articles, bibliographies, periodicals, serial publications and documents of interest are presented in the Selective Bibliography section. Links to the PPL Catalogue are inserted. The Library's subject heading (keywords) Space Law is instrumental for searching through the Catalogue. Special attention is given to our subscriptions on databases, e-journals, e-books and other electronic resources. Finally, this Research Guide features links to relevant websites and other online resources of particular interest.
Froehlich, A. and V. Seffinga, The United Nations and Space Security: Conflicting Mandates between UNCOPUOS and the CD, 2020
Dongar, O., L'évolution de la finalité des activités spatiales: un défi pour le droit de l'espace, 2020
Sources of international law
- Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (London, Moscow, Washington D.C., 22 April 1968)
- Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (London, Moscow, Washington, D.C., 29 March 1972)
- Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (New York, 14 January 1975)
- Moon Treaty, Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (New York, 5 December 1979)
- Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (London, Moscow, Washington, D.C., 27 January 1967)
UN Declarations and Resolutions
- UNGA Resolution 1348 (XIII). Question of the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs [13 December 1958].
- UNGA Resolution 1472 (XIV). International co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space. United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs [12 December 1959].
- UNGA Resolution 72/250. Further practical measures for the prevention of an arms race in outer space [12 January 2017].
- UNGA Resolutions on Outer Space (United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs)
- Dunk, F. von der, and F. Tronchetti, (eds.), Handbook of Space Law, Cheltenham; Northampton, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015.
- Gangale, T., How High the Sky? The Definition and Delimitation of Outer Space and Territorial Airspace in International Law, Leiden, Brill Nijhoff, 2018.
- Hobe, S., Space Law, München, C.H. Beck, 2019.
- Hobe, S. (ed.), Pioneers of Space Law, Leiden; Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2013.
- Masson-Zwaan, T. and M. Hofmann, (eds.), Introduction to Space Law, Alphen aan den Rijn, Wolters Kluwer, 2019.
Selected books and articles
- Achilleas, P. and Hobe, S. (eds.), Fifty Years of Space Law, Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations Publication, Académie de droit international de La Haye, Leiden, Boston, Brill, Nijhoff, 2020. [e-book]
- Al-Ekabi, C. (ed.), European Autonomy in Space, Cham, Springer, 2015.
- Al-Ekabi, C. and S. Ferretti (eds.), Yearbook on Space Policy 2016: Space for Sustainable Development, Cham, Springer, 2018.
- Borowitz, M., "Legal Considerations and Future Options for Space Situational Awareness", Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, 48 (2020), No. 3, pp. 695-709.
- Cakir, T., "Le recours aux accords internationaux dans le cadre d'une opération spatiale", Revue allemande de droit aérien et spatial, 69 (2020), No. 3, pp. 485-511.
- Chen, Z., "Theoretical Territoriality Paradox for the Intellectual Property Protection in Outer Space and Its Regulatory Approach for Reconciliation", Journal of East Asia and International Law, 13 (2020), No. 1, pp. 53-74.
- Cruzen, C., M. Schmidhuber, Y.H. Lee and B. Kim (eds.), Space Operations: Contributions from the Global Community, Cham, Springer Nature, 2017.
- Di Pippo, S., M. Woltran and M. Stasko, "Preserving Space Environment through Multilateralism: the United Nations and Contemporary Space Challenges", Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht, 69 (2020), No. 2, pp. 288-307.
- Dongar, O., L'évolution de la finalité des activités spatiales: un défi pour le droit de l'espace, Paris, Éditions A. Pedone, 2020.
- Freeland, S., "Applying the Jus in Bello to Military Uses of Outer Space: A Square Peg in a Round Hole?", in P.M. Sterns, L.I. Tennen and E. Fasan (eds.), Private Law, Public Law, Metalaw and Public Policy in Space: a Liber Amicorum in Honor of Ernst Fasan, Cham, Springer, 2016, pp. 109-122.
- Froehlich, A. and V. Seffinga (eds.), National Space Legislation: a Comparative and Evaluative Analysis, Cham, Springer, 2018.
- Froehlich, A. and V. Seffinga (eds.), The United Nations and Space Security: Conflicting Mandates between UNCOPUOS and the CD, Cham, Springer, 2020.
- Frohloff, J., "Per arbitrum ad astra", Journal of international arbitration, 37 (2020), No. 6, pp. 721-729.
- Harrington, A.J., "Preserving Humanity's Heritage in Space: Fifty Years after Apollo 11 and Beyond", Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 84 (2019), No. 3, pp. 299-378.
- Hobe, S., "The Artemis Accords: What they Mean for the Development of International Space Law", Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht = German journal of air and space law, 70 (2021), No. 1, pp. 1-12.
- Jakhu, R.S. and J.N. Pelton (eds.), Global Space Governance: an International Study, Cham, Switzerland, Springer, 2017.
- Jakhu, R.S., S. Freeland and K. Chen, "The Sources of International Space Law: Revisited", Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht, 67 (2018), No. 4, pp. 606-667.
- Kim, H.T., "Fundamental Principles of Space Resources Exploitation: a Recent Development of International and Municipal Law", Journal of East Asia and International law, 11 (2018), No. 1, pp. 35-52.
- Kurlekar, A., "Space - The Final Frontier: Analysing Challenges of Dispute Resolution Relating to Outer Space", Journal of International Arbitration, 33 (2016), No. 4, pp. 379-416.
- Lee, R.J., Law and Regulation of Commercial Mining of Minerals in Outer Space, Dordrecht, Springer, 2012.
- Mejía-Kaiser, M., The Geostationary Ring: Practice and Law, Leiden, Boston, Brill Nijhoff, 2020. [e-book]
- Pislevik, S., "Law Without Gravity: Arbitrating Space Disputes at the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the Relevance of Adverse Inferences", Journal of Space Law, 43 (2019), No. 2, pp. 280-308.
- Pop, V., Who Owns the Moon?: Extraterrestrial Aspects of Land and Mineral Resources Ownership, Berlin, Springer, 2009.
- Salmeri, A., "The Integration between National and International Regulation of Space Resource Activities under Public International Law", Journal of space law, 43 (2019), No. 1, pp. 60-84.
- Soucek, A., "Legal and Practical Questions in Applying Articles II and IV of the Registration Convention", Zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht, 65 (2016), No. 1, pp. 22-43.
- Steer, C. and Hersch, M. (eds.), War and Peace in Outer Space: Law, Policy, and Ethics, Oxford, OUP, 2021.
- Wouters, J., Ph. De Man and R. Hansen (eds.), Commercial Uses of Space and Space Tourism: Legal and Policy Aspects, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.
- Zannoni, D., "The Liability Regime for Private Activities in Outer Space: is there a Normative Gap?", Archiv des Völkerrechts, 59 (2021), No. 1, pp. 1-26.
- Zannoni, D., "The Dilemma Between the Freedom to Use and the Proscription against Appropriating Outer Space and Celestial Bodies", Chinese Journal of International Law, 19 (2020), No. 2, pp. 329-358.
Periodicals, serial publications
- Air & Space Law
- Annals of Air and Space Law
- Aviation / Aerospace Law and Policy Series
- Cologne Commentary on Space Law
- Essential Air and Space Law
- Forum for Air and Space Law
- Journal of Air Law and Commerce
- Journal of Space Law
- Proceedings of the … Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space
- Revue française de droit aérien et spatial
- Schriften zum Luft- und Weltraumrecht
- Studies in Space Law
- Utrecht Studies in Air and Space Law
- Yearbook on Space Policy
- Zeitschrift fur Luft- und Weltraumrecht
- Baranes, B., "Bibliography of Space Policy Publications 2014", in C. Al-Ekabi (et al.) (eds.), Yearbook on Space Policy 2014: the Governance of Space, Wien, Springer, 2016, pp. 303-316.
- Hogan, J.C., "Space Law Bibliography", Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 23 (1956), No. 3, pp. 317-325.
- Ridderhof, R.J.W, H.P.C. Buisman and R. Looney, Fifty Years of Space Law – Space Law in 50 Years: Selected Bibliography = Cinquante ans de droit de l'espace - le droit de l'espace dans 50 ans: bibliographie sélective, The Hague, Peace Palace Library, 2017.
- White, I.L., C.E. Wilson and J.A. Vosburgh, Law and Politics in Outer Space: A Bibliography, Tucson, AZ, University of Arizona Press, 1972.